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With the machining method turning, usually rotationally symmetrical components are produced. While the work piece rotates, the tool performs the feed and movement into depth. Turning plays an important role in metal machining and has developed into a high-tech method due to rising demand in the market.

Important criteria for an optimal cutting process are, among others, the choice of turning method, of the insert geometry, as well as of the cutting material grade.

Turning method

Depending on the desired shape of the work piece surface to be produced, there is a choice between the following turning methods:

Round turning

With round turning (also called longitudinal turning), the tool’s feed movement produces cylindrical surfaces.

Face turning

With face turning, the tool moves perpendicular to the turning axis, producing flat surfaces.

Profile turning

With profile turning, the tool already has the desired final shape. The feed movement then defines this shape onto the work piece.


A certain number of revolutions per minute and feed movements produce helical surfaces.

Form turning

Simultaneous movements of the singular feed axes can follow contours.


The insert’s geometry severely determines the performance of a machining process.
As a rule, a decision is made between a negative and a positive insert shape:

Negative cutting edge geometry: ß = 90° 

  • Stable cutting edge – suited for an interrupted cut
  • Twice the number of cutting edges compared to positive geometries
  • Increased cutting forces and power consumption
  • Strong compression of chips


Our recommendation: the MaxiLock N and MaxiLock D systems for clamping negative inserts.

Positive cutting edge geometry: ß < 90°

  • Low cutting force
  • Low tendency to vibration
  • Easy chip evacuation
  • Weakening of the cutting edge
  • Risk of breakage


Our recommendation: the MaxiLock S system for clamping positive inserts.

Chip breaker

Chip breakers for finish machining

In chip breakers for finish machining, the chip breaker is close to the cutting edge (see image). This results in deformation and subsequent breakage of the chip, even with low cutting depths. In addition, these geometries have a considerably lower chamfer width than rougher chip breakers, making the insert cutting smoother and require considerably less pressure to remove the chips.

Chip breakers for medium machining

Geometries that are used in medium machining, in comparison to geometries for finish machining, have a higher chamfer width, protecting the cutting edge and making it suitable for use in more difficult conditions. It is important, when using these geometries, to observe the minimum feed rate and cutting depths (see application data), so that the insert can be applied in a cutting process.


Application data: CNMG 120408EN-M50

ap: 1.5 - 5.0 mm
f: 0.3 - 0.5 mm

Chip breakers for rough machining

Geometries for rough machining are the most stable. With these chip breakers, even large cutting depths and high feed rates can be reached effortlessly. Because the cutting force in rough machining is enormously high, a few geometries remove the chip in order to reduce friction (see image).


Milling is a machining process where flat or contoured surfaces are created. The tool usually features multiple edges to carry out the cutting action as the tool moves relative to the workpiece.

The first milling machines with numeric control were only able to carry out feed movements along one axis at a time, which only allowed for straight-lined machining. Today, simultaneous movements along multiple axes are possible, thus allowing highly complex components to be manufactured.

Types of milling

Face milling

With face milling, flat surfaces are produced.

Helical milling

With helical milling, spiral or helical surfaces are produced by means of specific feed and approach movements.

Turn milling

With turn milling, components rotating around a central point are produced. Classical components include turbine blades or camshafts.

Profile milling

With profile milling, the tool possesses the required form which is then rendered onto the component by the feed movement.

Form milling

With form milling, complex components are produced by simultaneous passing motions.

Hob milling

Hob milling is of great importance particularly for gear machining. Interlocking gears are produced by the rolling off of the tool.

Chip breakers

Chip breakers for fine machining

  • Geometry -F40 for the machining of heat-resistant materials
  • Positive rake angle: smooth cut
  • Y = 12 – 30 °

Chip breakers for medium machining

  • Geometry -M50 for universal machining
  • Combines soft cutting action with cutting edge stability
  • Y = 10 – 18 °

Chip breakers for rough machining

  • Geometry -R50 for difficult conditions
  • Optimal cutting edge stability
  • Y = 0 – 12 °


Drilling is a machining method for producing circular holes in components. The tool generally features multiple cutting edges and can be used either in a rotating or stationary fashion. The feed runs exclusively linear to the rotational axis.

In comparison with other production methods, such as turning, milling, or parting and grooving, drilling is the oldest production technique.

Drill types

Insert drills

  • Diameters: Ø = 14.0 mm – Ø 63.0 mm
  • For medium to large holes
  • Drill depth of up to 5xD

Solid carbide drills

  • For holes with small to medium diameters;  Ø = 1.0 mm – 25.0 mm
  • Tolerance classes: H7, H7 and M6

Deep hole drills

  • Diameters: Ø = 2.0 mm – 12.0 mm
  • For deep holes of up to 50xD
  • Tolerance class: H7

Solid carbide drills: geometries

Straight cutting edge

  • Low drilling pressure, good self-centring capabilities
  • For all materials (steel, stainless steel, cast iron, titanium)
  • Stable grind, sharp cutting edge

Convex cutting edge

  • Short chips, good chip evacuation
  • Especially for steels and machining of hard materials
  • Very stable thanks to low rake angle and large corner angle, resistant edges

Concave cutting edge

  • Very sharp and smooth cutting geometry
  • High feeds and cutting speeds realisable
  • Especially for steels with low strength (constructional steel, machining steel)

Parting and grooving

With the machining methods for parting and grooving, grooves are produced through radial or axial movements on rotationally symmetric components (grooving) or parted off on bar components (parting). Parting and grooving are universally applicable methods – the range of applications spans from precision grooves for circlips through to profile grooves and turning.

Parting and grooving methods


When parting, bar components are parted off. This method is used particularly often for mass production.


When grooving, grooves are produced in the component; this can happen both radially as well as axially.

Parting, grooving and turning

For the production of very wide and shallow grooves, the longitudinal turning method is the most often used, as it saves valuable time and, as a result, also costs.

Profile grooving

With profile grooving, a special profile is produced using a radius insert.

Deep grooving

In order to produce very deep grooves, when applying this method, a blade is most commonly used.


Modular parting and grooving system

  • Same interface for parting, grooving, and threading modules
  • Suited for varied uses
  • Expandable with new modules
  • Exchangeable cutting insert in case of damage
  • Very precise and stable connection

Monobloc tool

  • High stability, as the tool holder is made out of one piece
  • Particularly suited for mass production
  • Clamping screws accessible from the top and bottom

Block/blade solution

  • Overhang can be flexibly adjusted
  • Very deep grooves possible
  • Two insert seats per blade

Chip breakers

Chip breakers for finishing

Inserts for finishing are usually characterised by positive geometries. They have a low chamfer width for a rougher chip breaker and therefore also ensure considerably smoother cutting. Finishing chip breakers are often particularly used for grooving and turning.

Chip breakers for medium machining

Geometries that are used for medium machining, compared to those for finishing, have a reduced rake angle. Due to the open geometry, these chip breakers ensure ideal chip evacuation and are suitable for universal application. Typical uses include grooving and turning.

Chip breakers for rough machining

Geometries for rough machining are the most stable. The large chamfer width protects the cutting edge, allowing these chip breakers to be used in difficult conditions. Rough machining chip breakers are often used for parting and grooving.